A study of English Noun and its understanding in depth

Noun is the word used to denote actual things, ideas, perceptions, illusions, references etc. however in more broader terms we may define a noun as anything that can be given a name. For example, we a building constucted of bricks, cement and concrete may well be given a name according to its usage and tradition of the place e.g. a mosque, a church, a school, a house. But the imaginary processes of the brain may be represented as thought or dream.

Common Noun:

The general name of a single member or a group of a class of things is referred to as a "common noun". To illustrate this we may give below references where common nouns have italicized: 1)
    I have bought a chair.
    There were a hundred pencils in the drawer.
    The man was moving towards the city.

The example 1 depicts the word "a chair" which is a single member of a class "chairs". Any type of chair can be called chair regardless of its particular name. In 2nd example the word "pencils" is again a common noun but it reflects the group of things from a class pencils. The 3rd example presents the noun "man" which is a single member of a class called men; the word man is one of billions of men in the world. Any "chair" or "man" is just but any one of the millions or billions of the members of their particular class.

Proper Noun:

The particular name of a person, place or thing distinguishing it from the other members of its class. This means the exact names of particular persons, places, things etc. Below examples illustrate it further: 1)
    Aslam is a gentle man.
    Lahore is a great city.

The above proper nouns are one of the many of other members from a particular class or nouns but they are not common nouns of that class because they have been given particular and proper names; Lahore is the name of a city which in turn is one of the many other cities in the country and the world. Similarly, Aslam is one of the billions of men but it is distinguished from other nouns of its class because "Aslam" is a particular name given to a man.

Collective Noun:

Generally a noun is either singular or plural but there are a few exceptions to this rule which are represented by collective nouns; a collective noun appears to be single but it represents a group of things or persons. However, it is interesting to note that collective nouns do sometimes appear either as singulars while sometimes as plurals. Examples are depicted below: 1)
    The committee has decided to select a few more members.
    Team are not happy with their coach.

In the first example, "committee" is a collective noun that represents more than one persons but they are represented as a single entity and hence a single noun. The same word "committee" may also play the role of a plural noun in a sentence. Similarly the word "team" is a collection of players forming the collective noun "team". The team word may also be used interchangeably either as a singular or a plural. It has however been used as a plural in the above sentence.

Abstract and Material Nouns:

Nouns, regardless of being common or proper, are categorized into intangible i.e. the things we can't see or touch and tangible i.e. the things we can see and touch. Examples of these types are:

Abstract: dream, vision, accomplishment etc.

Material: man, car, player etc.